Risk Analysis of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) occurrence in milchers of Jammu region, India

Mageswar Slathia, Harsh Sharma, Jasbir Bedi, Faieza Arwa, Arvind Kumar*
Author Information & Copyright
1Sher e Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology of Jammu, JAMMU 181102, India.
*Corresponding Author: Arvind Kumar, Phone: 08492896259. E-mail:

© Copyright 2023 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: May 22, 2023; Revised: Jun 29, 2023; Accepted: Jul 09, 2023

Published Online: Jul 18, 2023


Aflatoxin M1  is a threatening risk to the safety of milk and can be potent health hazard. Being it is known for its zoonotic traits as well, it has a binding affinity for casein in milk and is relatively stable during cold storage. The purpose of the study to estimate the prevalence of AFM1 in bulk milk tank representative samples of commercial and household dairy establishments  across four tehsils of Jammu and associated risk factors. A total of 620 bulk milk tank samples (6620 individuals) were analysed using a commercial ELISA kit, out of which 47 samples (75.8%)were above European Union-Maximum Permissible Limit. However, all samples were detected below Food Safety Standard Authority of India - Maximum Permissible Limit. The Risk analysis of associated factors with Aflatoxin M1 concentration found that large farms (100%), higher milk yield (81%; Odds Ratio of 2.29), Intensive farming (78%; Odds Ratio of 2.1), Left-over fruits and vegetables incorporated in animal feed (86%; Odds Ratio of 3.53), Cleanliness status at the farm (86%; Odds Ratio of 2.71) and feed storage status (91%; Odds Ratio of 4.81) to be at greater risk for occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk.

Keywords: Aflatoxin M1; Bovines; Bulk milk tank sample; ELISA; Risk factors